Community Philosphy Blog and Library

Posts Tagged ‘irrigation’

HOMEGROWN Life: Surviving Drought in Your Garden—in California or Anywhere

Wednesday, February 12th, 2014

 

HOMEGROWN-LIFE-LT-GREENThe biggest question garden-loving Californians are asking right now is, “Should I even grow a garden this year with this drought?” It’s a responsible, well-meaning question. I asked it myself a few weeks ago. I went back and forth about it. A garden increases your water use, but at the same time, you don’t want to let all of your hard work die.

And then it dawned on me, as I was driving by agricultural fields being irrigated by overhead spray in the middle of the day: I’m going to be eating food that requires water use anyway.

If I grow it, I can control how much water is used. In fact, I can actually reduce my water use through food consumption if I grow it myself. The LA Times recently had an article about how much water is required to grow certain foods. If you eat meat, goat needs the least amount of water per pound of meat. An apple requires 18 gallons, and an orange requires 13 gallons. That’s quite a bit of water for just one fruit. Potatoes require 119 gallons of water per pound. Yikes.

My guilt of growing a garden subsided a bit. Now it was time to figure out what I can do to reduce my water footprint even more. I hope these tips help you as well.

KNOW YOUR SOIL

 

soilstructure

One of the keys to water-wise drought gardening, and gardening in any conditions, is to know what kind of soil you have. If you have raised beds, you most likely have a soil that is high in organic matter and maybe even has a bit of topsoil. If your beds aren’t brand new, you’re going to want to get your soil tested so you know what nutrients you need to add. Plants that are getting enough nutrients are going to be hardier and will weather the drought better. If you plant in the ground like I do, you are also going to want to know the soil’s structure. How much sand, silt, and clay does your soil have? Sandy soil doesn’t hold water very well, while clay soil has a tendency to hold onto water too well.

In addition, you can check out the Web Soil Survey through the USDA (push the green button). This will give you an idea of how deep your soil is, which directly affects how much water it can hold. It will also tell you the water-holding capacity of your soil. For the record, our soil is 20 to 40 inches deep but only holds 4.5 inches of water, which means that if it rained 6 inches, the soil would only be able to hold 4.5 inches, and the remaining 1.5 would run off, or flooding would occur. Also, the water table is more than 80 inches deep, so I can depend on trees being able to access it, as most tree roots only go down 2 to 3 feet.

AMEND YOUR SOIL

 

compost (2)

Adding compost to dig in

Starting from the ground up, we first want to make sure our soil is well amended with a lot of organic matter. Organic matter will help absorb and hold onto more water. It will also help provide enough nutrients for the plant to develop strong root systems. Organic matter helps fast-draining sandy soils hold onto water and helps heavy clay soils distribute the water deeper to the root zone, making it more available to the plant. If you have tested your soil through A&L Agricultural Laboratories, as I recommend, they will offer suggestions of what to add to your soil to grow your desired crops. You can read more about developing your own organic blend in the Composting 101.

CONTROL YOUR WATER

 

tomato

A tomato planted at the drip-tubing emitter location

Fortunately for us, we are already on the right track. Our entire property is on drip/micro irrigation. If you don’t have your vegetable beds on drip, now is the time to invest. A drip system does several things.

  • It reduces the amount of water you use while watering by 50 percent or more.
  • It reduces diseases caused by overhead watering.
  • It reduces problems with weeds.
  • It reduces the amount of time you spend watering.
  • It reduces runoff and erosion.

If you don’t have a drip irrigation system yet and don’t know how to put one in, I’ve got a pretty thorough Drip Irrigation 101 that can help you. Once you have your driplines in, situate your plants near emitters so that the plants fully utilize as much water as possible. Instead of watering a little bit every day, water heavily but less often. You want the roots to travel as far down as you can get them to go. Plants with shallow roots are more likely to get dried out and stressed. Most plants require an inch of water per week. My aim is to water with drip 30 minutes twice a week. Of course the length and frequency of watering depends on the drip components you use. Many manufacturers offer calculators to determine how long and how often you should run your irrigation. To reduce evaporation, schedule your irrigation to turn on between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. Early morning hours are preferable.

RETAIN YOUR WATER

 

Give all your plants a thick layer of mulch

Give all your plants a thick layer of mulch.

If you do go the drip irrigation route, mulch the hell out of everything you plan to water. And I mean MULCH. Lots of it. Go for at least 4 inches, if the plant’s height allows. Straw is a cheap mulch that you can use, although it does get slick when wet and has a tendency to blow around. Bark mulch is heavier and longer lasting but can be expensive, unless you get it from a tree service. Getting it from a tree service, however, can limit you to mulch from whatever tree they just removed, and some tree species, such as black walnut and eucalyptus, can cause problems in the garden.

So far, one of the best mulches I have found for water retention is old livestock bedding. It’s heavier because it has absorbed urine and feces (which also increases its fertility), so it doesn’t blow away. It’s also finer in texture from being broken up by hooves, so it doesn’t have as many air spaces to allow evaporation. If you don’t have livestock, you can get old bedding from horse stables, which often give it away for free. Just be careful about weed seeds. Horses that are stabled tend to have fewer weed seeds in their feces than pastured horses. I’ve used rice hull bedding from a local stable before, and this stuff was fantastic. You can also save up dried leaves and use those as well. We tried out plastic-mulch sheeting one year and found that it helped hold onto more water than expected. It also helped heat up the soil for plants that preferred warm ground temps. Melons and watermelons really thrived with the black plastic. The more drought-tolerant plants, such as tomatoes, didn’t fare quite as well.

Whatever you use, make sure to lay the mulch over your irrigation lines. You don’t want to water the mulch because it will absorb all of the water and not allow any to reach the soil and your plants. You also don’t want to have mulch right up against the stems of most plants (the onion family and potatoes plants tend to be the exceptions), as it can cause problems with rot. An inch or so away is fine, though.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT PLANTS

 

All of this Pink Banana Squash came from just a single volunteer plant that we only watered twice

All of this pink banana squash came from a single volunteer plant that we only watered twice.

Not all vegetables are created equal. Some, like celery, onions, green beans, carrots, lettuces, and melons require a lot more water than other vegetables. Squash, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, chard, arugula, and dry beans, especially Tepary beans, are better choices for drought gardening, when water is restricted. Most plants have critical periods, when they require more water than normal. This is usually during flowering and fruit production.

If you really want to grow some of the higher-water-need plants, put them together on a separate water valve. That way you can have part of your garden getting more water than the rest, rather than the entire garden getting more water than some plants need. Also, space the plants farther apart, so they aren’t competing with each other for every precious drop. You may end up with fewer plants, but you won’t have to water as much.

The picture above of all the squash is a perfect example of how water-wise gardening can be productive. All of that squash—each weighing approximately 20 pounds—came from a single volunteer plant. It sprouted in our old chicken yard, so the soil had lots of organic matter and a high nutrient content. Because it was a volunteer, we didn’t have irrigation going to it and only ended up giving it two deep waterings early on in its growth. That year was wetter then this one, so the soil had a larger water capacity than this year, but it goes to show that, if done correctly and mindfully, very little applied water can result in a big harvest.

We have a lot of volunteer vegetable plants that grow in our yard. Most of the time they are in our beds, but sometimes they grow in spots that don’t get any supplementary water. These vegetables are the ones that do best in drought conditions because they don’t need the extra water. Chard, squash, arugula, and tomatoes are the most common drought-tolerant volunteers growing in our yard. Artichokes are very drought tolerant as well. Their growing season is in the winter and spring, and then they die back in the summer and go dormant until the rains return. We rely nearly 100 percent on the rainy season for our artichoke plants. We’ve never watered them until this year. They and the trees are now getting the water we save.

A WORD ON CONTAINER GARDENING

 

If you have a small yard or balcony and still want to grow some of your food, you can go the container gardening route, even in a drought. You’ll follow many of the same guidelines as outlined above, but you also want to take care regarding the type of container you are using. Terracotta planters are going to dry out a lot faster than plastic or even glazed pottery. You’ll want to set saucers under your pots to catch excess water. An even better system would be to invest in or make self-watering containers. These only release water as the plant needs them and are low-water use. For instructions on how to set up your own system, check out the Self-Watering Container (aka Subirrigated Planter) 101.

SAVE YOUR WATER

 

We now have several 5 gallon buckets in our kitchen and bathroom to collect water that can be used for watering perennial plants and trees. One of those buckets is in the bathtub, specifically to catch the cold water before it gets warm. This is perfectly fresh, clean water that shouldn’t be wasted. In addition, we are now saving some of our kitchen water. If you cook pasta, don’t salt it. You can use that water in the garden. If we’re rinsing off produce, we save that water. We also save some dish-washing water, based on what we are cleaning and what soap we’re using. If it has touched raw meat, raw eggs, etc., it goes down the drain. (You can also save laundry water if you aren’t washing diapers.) All of this water is getting used on our artichoke plants, fruit trees, and various shrubs. I don’t use it on annual vegetables whose leaves or roots we eat.

Besides saving water, we’re also reducing the amount we use. The saying, “If it’s yellow, let it mellow; if it’s brown, flush it down,” is heard quite often around our house now. We also turn off the water when we’re brushing our teeth, which we all should do anyway, and turn it on only to rinse the dishes. Also, while washing dishes, we run the water a lot lower. The tap seems to rinse them just as quickly at a lower flow than at full blast, so I hope to see a savings there. We’ve also shortened our showers to just 5 minutes. I’m planning on getting a valve to attach to the shower head so we can turn it off while we’re soaping up.

By reducing the amount of water your garden and your household use, and by saving some of that water, you can reduce your overall usage enough to not have to feel guilty. If you’re growing your own and following water-wise guidelines, you are helping reduce more water than just what you see on your bill. Whether or not your area is experiencing drought conditions, following these methods will conserve water, which is always a good thing.

HOMEGROWN Life blog: Rachel, of Dog Island FarmRachel’s friends in college used to call her a Renaissance woman. She was always doing something crafty, creative, or utilitarian. She still is. Instead of arts and crafts, her focus these days has been farming as much of her urban quarter-acre as humanly possible. Along with her husband, she runs Dog Island Farm, in the San Francisco Bay Area. They raise chickens, goats, rabbits, dogs, cats, and a kid. They’re always keeping busy. If Rachel isn’t out in the yard, she’s in the kitchen making something from scratch. Homemade always tastes better!

ALL PHOTOS: RACHEL

 

HOMEGROWN Life: The Making of a Hugelkultur Bed

Wednesday, November 14th, 2012

Oh yes, I’m going to be talking a lot about hugelkultur beds because we just finished our first small 10′ section of it this afternoon. While it didn’t take very long to do, it was a lot of heavy lifting. Most of the work was actually clearing out the bed of raspberries (that never have produced a single berry) and weeds and then digging a foot of dirt out.

Building a hugelkultur bed doesn’t actually require you to dig up the dirt and sink it, but what can I say? We’re gluttons for punishment? No, actually, our soil has been so nicely amended and had this great texture that we decided to dig it out so we can add it back to the top of the hugelkultur bed. And in the past when we used to do raised beds we always found that when we included native soil in the beds they always did a lot better. My guess is that the native soil includes micronutrients and microorganisms that compost doesn’t have.

We then laid down sheets of cardboard. Of course, this is another step you don’t have to do but because we have such a problem with bindweed (which can have viable roots as far down as 20′) we decided that putting down cardboard would create a barrier to help stop the bindweed but eventually break down once it was no longer needed. Once the cardboard was down we started tossing wood of various sizes onto the pile. and a few old artichoke stalks for good measure. The wood is the key to hugelkultur. While it breaks down over time it will absorb water like a sponge while also releasing nutrients. The water absorption helps reduce your water use. If you make large 6′ tall beds you can go without adding any additional water during dry summers. Since our bed is not that high we’ll still have to supplement with summer water but we can definitely cut back since a bed that’s only 2′ tall can hold water for approximately 3 weeks. This leads to another important thing about these beds. You have to build them before the rains come, which is late fall here, so they can absorb as much water as possible before you can plant them. It’s best to use rotting wood which will hold more water and is also less likely to tie up nitrogen in the soil. Also avoid certain woods such as black walnut, cedar, redwood, black locust and eucalyptus which either contain rotting inhibitors or contain compounds that are toxic to other plants. Fruit tree wood also has a tendency to be too hard and take too long to start rotting.

After we got all the wood in place we placed a good thick layer of poultry litter which consists of straw with chicken and turkey manure and quite a few feathers (just because they are currently molting). Poultry litter is the best way we’ve found to get a compost pile up and running quickly so we wanted to use this directly on the logs to help get the breakdown process started. Again, this isn’t necessarily a step you must do to build a traditional hugelkultur bed, it’s just a step we chose to do.

Another step we chose to include was to cover the poultry litter with finished compost that we picked up at the local recycling/composting facility. $4.31 for a truckload, which you just can’t beat.

The final layer, which is really the only other thing you have to do besides using wood, is covering the bed with soil and smoothing it out. Yes, it’s a lot of work but the work we do now means we won’t have to work later. Hugelkultur beds are kind of self-tilling and since they are raised they’ll never get walked on, which compacts the soil. We’ll definitely finish off this one bed, hopefully getting more of it done tomorrow and then we can start thinking about doing some of the other larger beds. Eventually if this works out for us, I’d like to do all of our beds this way.

My friends in college used to call me a Renaissance woman. I was always doing something crafty, creative, or utilitarian. I still am. My focus these days, instead of arts and crafts, has been farming as much of my urban quarter acre as humanly possible. With my husband, we run Dog Island Farm in the SF Bay Area. We raise chickens, goats, rabbits, dogs, cats, and a kid. We’re always keeping busy. If I’m not out in the yard I’m in the kitchen making something from scratch. Homemade always tastes better!

HOMEGROWN Life: Living The Dream (Sort of). Drought On The Farm

Wednesday, July 4th, 2012

I am one of those people that does not actually believe the grass is greener on the other side of the hill. I am neither pessimist nor optimist. I am full of passions and gut-wrenching opinion but understand that others feel the same way. I am not a judge. I have a hard time with black-and-white thinking.

So that is some context for a rant I wanted to leave you with on this Independence Day: I want to rant about drought.

Drought is hard on us out here in Farm Country. But drought in the midst of boiling hot summer is amongst the worst conditions I can imagine. At this point in West Missouri we’re numerous inches behind on rain for the average year. (Note–I am not trying to be un-precise here. It’s just that we’ve had so many spot-showers it’s hard to
specific. On my farm, we’ve had right at 3 inches of rain since April 1st. April-May-June being a bulwark of the year’s annual precipitation jolt–between 12-15 inches per year on average. Some farmers have gotten more, others less). We normally get around 40 inches of rain per year, but maybe we need to get around to figuring out the “new
normal.”

Since I’ve moved home to where I grew up last Fall, I’ve already experienced 2 droughts. One was the Fall of 2011 where farmers in the area sold off many cows and other animals due to lack of pond water and low hay yields. The other is now 2012 Spring on the heels of a mild and gentle winter. While local winter wheat yields made the great
leap forward, corn and beans are going to be non-existent. Hay crops had the great promise of many cuttings (some people were cutting hay in March and early April–that’s unheard of around here) but now our pastures are parched and won’t grow a bit until rains and sub-90-degree temperatures return.

The lack of rain and poor preparation for drought are likely intensified on a vegetable operation. Piping in water is a fine thing, but there is nothing like a good slow and soaking rain to let plants get established and healthy. We have not had that. Many of us have waited and waited and waited to transplant our seedlings into the field so that soil moisture isn’t completely decimated. And if we got rain, it was too late. Now, temperatures are above 95 degrees with heat indices of above 100 for a couple of weeks. There is no sign of relief.

Local farmers, whether they be of the row-crop or livestock or homestead type, have a couple of rules that they count on. First, there is always (nearly always) a Fourth of July Storm that makes the corn. Second, there is a State Fair Rain that finishes everything up and gives us some relief before Fall. These “rules” for local agriculture exist upon the heels of a wet and friendly spring. This year we were dry in the pre-season, staggered early, remained stunted
throughout the mid-season and are looking at a long-term forecast that is very scary.

Hauling and pumping water to garden and farm plants has to be one of the most insanity-producing tasks of humanity. Yes, plants need water. But the human work of moving water to parch the thirst of plants is a
frustrating, time-consuming and resource draining job. I hate it. I know I have to do it, but usually it’s a supplemental activity rather than the main event. It seems to be the definition of futility. That’s because I’ve already been watering for months. Watering to keep the plants alive. Then the heat sets in, the deep and red-hot heat, and
all of that water and all of that work whither and die. That’s before harvest and cashing in to earn whatever income was projected to come in. I’ve got all of the expense, and none of the pay-out.

I’ve said it before and know that the lesson needs to keep being repeated. We learn a lot about our farming systems when we’re in marginal production times. I’ve learned that I need to invest in irrigation systems that move water most efficiently to actually help solve this challenge. Thank goodness I’ve been awarded a contract with USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) conservation program to help me pay for it.

Still, it’s a hard lesson to learn. Row croppers around here are protected by crop insurance programs that will keep them producing crops next year. Livestock and veggie farmers like myself don’t have that kind of safety net. We are left to off-farm work and toil and living on fumes to make it until next year’s planting season. We know it will rain eventually. But when?

I say all of this not to complain about being a farmer. It’s a pretty good life, despite the challenges. But I want to give you a look into the brain of a semi-mad young farmer trying hard to learn his craft. Drought is pain, and pain hurts. My great worry is that Spring/Summer drought is now the rule instead of the exception. My great worry is that I thought I was moving back home to the Osage Plains climate where I grew up. Instead, it appears as if I’ve moved to a climate that has shifted to something more like that of San Antonio, Texas. That’s not the same thing.

Bryce is a farmer, father, writer and rural economic development entrepreneur. He works with his family to raise organic vegetables, beef, lamb, chickens, goats and manage the bottomland forest woodlot in Western Missouri. He has helped to launch numerous social enterprises including a sustainable wood processing cooperative, a dairy goat cheese processing facility and a conservation-based land management company that incentivizes carbon sequestration in forests and grasslands. Bryce currently co-owns the Root Cellar Grocery in Downtown Columbia, Missouri, where the local food store operates a weekly produce subscription program, the Missouri Bounty Box (www.missouribountybox.com). Bryce, along with 135 other farmers, sells his produce through this program.